Ethernet is the most common LAN (Local Area Network) technology in use today. Ethernet was developed by Xerox in the 1970s, and became popular after Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel joined Xerox in developing the Ethernet standard in 1980. Ethernet was officially accepted as IEEE standard 802.3 in 1985.The original Xerox Ethernet operated at 3Mbps. Ethernet networks up to 10Gbps now exist.
The first Ethernet standard, 10Base-5, ran over thick coaxial cable. A later standard, Ethernet 10Base-2, ran over a much thinner coaxial cable. These two versions of Ethernet were colloquially known as thicknet and thinnet.
Modern Ethernet standards run on UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) or fiber-optic cabling.
|Ethernet Standard||Cable Specification|
|10Base-T||Category 3 UTP|
|100Base-TX||Category 5 UTP|
|1000Base-T||Cat 5e UTP|
Ethernet 10Base-5 and 10Base-2 used a bus topology. Bus topologies were difficult to maintain and troubleshoot.
Modern Ethernet networks use a star topology with an Ethernet hub, switch, or router at the center of the star.
It is still possible to create a two-node Ethernet network in a bus topology using a null-Ethernet cable between the two devices.
Ethernet DTE and DCE
All nodes on an Ethernet network are either DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) or DCE (Data Communications Equipment).
Ethernet DTE are devices such as computers and printers which are trying to communicate on the Ethernet network.
Ethernet DCE are devices such as switches and routers which are trying to help other devices communicate on the Ethernet network.
Like any network, Ethernet must have an algorithm for determining when each network node is allowed to communicate.
In Ethernet, this algorithm is known as CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection).
CSMA/CD has proven to be a very capable, if highly anarchistic, algorithm.
Device Driver Design
In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.
A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.
A device driver simplifies programming by acting as translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it. Programmers can write the higher-level application code independently of whatever specific hardware device.
Device drivers can be abstracted into logical and physical layers. Logical layers process data for a class of devices such as Ethernet ports or disk drives. Physical layers communicate with specific device instances. For example, a serial port needs to handle standard communication protocols such as XON/XOFF that are common for all serial port hardware. This would be managed by a serial port logical layer. However, the physical layer needs to communicate with a particular serial port chip. 16550 UART hardware differs from PL-011. The physical layer addresses these chip-specific variations. Conventionally, OS requests go to the logical layer first. In turn, the logical layer calls upon the physical layer to implement OS requests in terms understandable by the hardware. Inversely, when a hardware device needs to respond to the OS, it uses the physical layer to speak to the logical layer.
In Linux environments, programmers can build device drivers either as parts of the kernel or separately as loadable modules. Makedev includes a list of the devices in Linux: ttyS (terminal), lp (parallel port), hd (disk), loop (loopback disk device), sound (these include mixer, sequencer, dsp, and audio)
The Microsoft Windows .sys files and Linux .ko modules contain loadable device drivers. The advantage of loadable device drivers is that they can be loaded only when necessary and then unloaded, thus saving kernel memory.
Writing a device driver requires an in-depth understanding of how the hardware and the software of a given platform function. Drivers operate in a highly privileged environment and can cause disaster if they get things wrong.In contrast, most user-level software on modern operating systems can be stopped without greatly affecting the rest of the system. Even drivers executing in user mode can crash a system if the device is erroneously programmed. These factors make it more difficult and dangerous to diagnose problems.
Thus the task of writing drivers usually falls to software engineers who work for hardware-development companies. This is because they have better information than most outsiders about the design of their hardware. Moreover, it was traditionally considered in the hardware manufacturer’s interest to guarantee that their clients can use their hardware in an optimum way. Typically, the logical device driver (LDD) is written by the operating system vendor, while the physical device driver (PDD) is implemented by the device vendor. But in recent years non-vendors have written numerous device drivers, mainly for use with free and open source operating systems. In such cases, it is important that the hardware manufacturer provides information on how the device communicates. Although this information can instead be learned by reverse engineering, this is much more difficult with hardware than it is with software.
Microsoft has attempted to reduce system instability due to poorly written device drivers by creating a new framework for driver development, called Windows Driver Foundation (WDF). This includes User-Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) that encourages development of certain types of drivers — primarily those that implement a message-based protocol for communicating with their devices — as user mode drivers. If such drivers malfunction, they do not cause system instability. The Kernel-Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) model continues to allow development of kernel-mode device drivers, but attempts to provide standard implementations of functions that are well known to cause problems, including cancellation of I/O operations, power management, and plug and play device support.
Apple has an open-source framework for developing drivers on Mac OS X called the I/O Kit.
Kernel-mode vs user-mode
Device drivers, particularly on modern[update] Windows platforms, can run in kernel-mode (Ring 0) or in user-mode (Ring 3).The primary benefit of running a driver in user mode is improved stability, since a poorly written user mode device driver cannot crash the system by overwriting kernel memory. On the other hand, user/kernel-mode transitions usually impose a considerable performance overhead, thereby prohibiting user mode-drivers for low latency and high throughput requirements.
Kernel space can be accessed by user module only through the use of system calls. End user programs like the UNIX shell or other GUI based applications are part of the user space. These applications interact with hardware through kernel supported functions.
Because of the diversity of modern[update] hardware and operating systems, drivers operate in many different environments. Drivers may interface with:
* video adapters
* network cards
* sound cards
* local buses of various sorts — in particular, for bus mastering on modern systems
* low-bandwidth I/O buses of various sorts (for pointing devices such as mice, keyboards, USB, etc.)
* computer storage devices such as hard disk, CD-ROM and floppy disk buses (ATA, SATA, SCSI)
* implementing support for different file systems
* image scanners
* digital cameras
Common levels of abstraction for device drivers include:
* for hardware:
o interfacing directly
o writing to or reading from a device control register
o using some higher-level interface (e.g. Video BIOS)
o using another lower-level device driver (e.g. file system drivers using disk drivers)
o simulating work with hardware, while doing something entirely different
* for software:
o allowing the operating system direct access to hardware resources
o implementing only primitives
o implementing an interface for non-driver software (e.g. TWAIN)
o implementing a language, sometimes quite high-level (e.g.PostScript)
Choosing and installing the correct device drivers for given hardware is often a key component of computer system configuration.
Device Driver installation help — end user
Device driver problems in PCs are often misconstrued as an issue caused by a virus or other type of malware. However more PC savvy users are able to recognize this issue, and correct the problem without the need for tech support.
If you are unsure on how to go about updating or reinstalling device drivers on a Microsoft Windows machine, read A Quick Device Driver Download and Installation Guide.
Virtual device drivers
Virtual device drivers represent a particular variant of device drivers. They are used to emulate a hardware device, particularly in virtualization environments, for example when a DOS program is run on a Microsoft Windows computer or when a guest operating system is run on, for example, a Xen host. Instead of enabling the guest operating system to dialog with hardware, virtual device drivers take the opposite role and emulate a piece of hardware, so that the guest operating system and its drivers running inside a virtual machine can have the illusion of accessing real hardware. Attempts by the guest operating system to access the hardware are routed to the virtual device driver in the host operating system as e.g. function calls. The virtual device driver can also send simulated processor-level events like interrupts into the virtual machine.
Virtual devices may also operate in a non-virtualized environment. For example a virtual network adapter is used with a virtual private network, while a virtual disk device is used with iSCSI.
* Printers: CUPS
* RAID arrays: CCISS
* Scanners: SANE
* Video: Vidix, Direct Rendering Infrastructure
Solaris descriptions of commonly-used device drivers
* fas: Fast/wide SCSI controller
* hme: Fast (10/100 Mbit/s) Ethernet
* isp: Differential SCSI controllers and the SunSwift card
* glm: (Gigabaud Link Module) UltraSCSI controllers
* scsi: Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices
* sf: soc+ or socal Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FCAL)
* soc: SPARC Storage Array (SSA) controllers
* socal: Serial optical controllers for FCAL (soc+)